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Research

Bryan A. Liang, MD, PhD, JD

E-mail : brliang@ucsd.edu

Bryan A. Liang, MD, PhD, JD is Professor of Anesthesiology and Director of the San Diego Center for Patient Safety at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine. He received his BS from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MD from Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons, PhD from the University of Chicago Harris School of Public Policy Studies, and JD from Harvard Law School. He did not graduate from high school; however, in 2014, he was granted an honorary high school diploma from Clarence High School, his last attended secondary school, so as to be inducted into the school's Academic Wall of Fame for Professional, Civic, and Humanitarian Service. 

The focus of his work is the systemic impact of health policy and law on providers, patients, and patient safety, broadly construed. He combines his experience working in policy contexts in Asia, the European Union, and the United States with medical, legal, public policy, and economics training to formulate rational social policy promoting patient safety.

Dr. Liang is also the Doctor’s Docket editor of the Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, which provides legal and clinical commentary on lawsuits involving anesthesiology, and Contributing Editor of the Survey of Anesthesiology, which features health policy commentary of critical clinical practice issues in medicine, focused upon anesthesiology. Some previous Journal and Survey articles are linked here.

Selected References (From Greater Than 400 Publications)

Research Gate: Bryan A. Liang, MD, PhD, JD Research Gate Profile

Liang BA, Mackey TK. Illicit Stem Cell Commercialization: A Confluence of the Internet, Medical Tourism, and Direct to Consumer Advertising. In: Turksen K, ed. Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine. New York: Springer, 2014; In press.

Mackey TK, Liang BA. It’s Time to Shine the Light on Direct-to-Consumer Advertising. Ann Fam Med. In press.

Mackey TK, Liang BA, York P, Kubic T. Counterfeit Drug Penetration into Global Legitimate Medicine Supply Chains. Am J Trop Hygiene. In press. 

Mackey TK, Eysenbach G, Liang BA, Kohler JC, Geissbuhler A, Attaran A, A Call for a Moratorium on the .health Generic Top-Level Domain: Preventing the Commercialization and Exclusive Control of Online Health Information. Glob Health. In press.  

Mackey TK, Yagi N, Liang BA. Prescription Drug Coupons: Evolution and Need for Regulation in Direct-to-Consumer Advertising. Res Social Admin Pharm. 2014;10(3):588-594. 

Mackey TK, Liang BA, Pierce JP, Huber L, Bostic C. Call to Action: Promoting Domestic and Global Tobacco Control by Ratifying the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the United States. PLoS Med. 2014; 11(5): e1001639. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001639.

Liang BA, Mackey TK. Public-Private Partnerships to Promote Biosimilar Access, Affordability, and Patient Safety in Emerging Markets. Stanford J Law Sci Policy. 2014;7: art. 1.

Allen TC, Stafford M, Liang BA. Pathology and Medical Malpractice: Academic and Trainee Empirical Review of Cases by State of Texas Physicians. Am J Clin Path. 2014;141(4):501-509.

Mackey TK, Liang BA, Kohler JC Attaran A. Health Domains for Sale: The Need for Global Health Internet Governance. J Med Internet Res. 2014; 16(3): e62.

Contreras JT, Mackey TK, Liang BA. Global Amalgam Governance: The Need for Clinician Leadership. Inside Dentistry. 2014;10(1):30-32.

Liang BA, Lovett KM. Error Disclosure and Patient Safety: Integrating Lessons and Entity Culture for Continuous System Improvement. In: Agrawal A., ed. Clinical Case Series in Patient Safety. New York: Springer, 2014; 329-340.

Mackey TK, Contreras JT, Liang BA. The Minamata Convention on Mercury: Attempting to Address the Global Controversy of Dental Amalgam Use and Mercury Waste Disposal. Sci Tot Env. 2014;472:125-129.

Liang BA. An Addiction to Unsafe Injection Medication Practices? J Clin Anes. 2013; 25(7):519-20.

Mackey TK, Liang BA. Pharmaceutical Digital Marketing and Governance: Illicit Actors and Challenges to Global Patient Safety and Public Health. Glob Health. 2013;9:45.

Yagi N, Gerlt L, Mackey M, Liang BA. Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement (JPEPA)—Analysis of a Failed Nurse Migration Policy. Inter J Nurs. 2013;51(2):243-250. 

Mackey TK, Liang BA. Improving Global Health Governance to Combat Counterfeit Medicines: A Proposal for a UNODC-WHO-Interpol Trilateral Mechanism. BMC Medicine. 2013; 11:233.

Mackey TK, Liang BA, Kohler J, Attaran A. The Fight over dot-health: Ensuring the Future of Health Information Online. The Lancet. 2013; 382:1404.

Allen T, Liang BA. Innovation - Tumour board: Introducing real time to oncology management. Nature Rev Clin Onc. 2013;10:552-554.

Liang BA, Mackey TK, Lovett KM. Technology and Medicine: Academic Dishonesty and Risks to Global Health. J Comm Biotech. 2013;19(4):42-48. 

Balcius JA, Liang BA. Motorcycle Simulator Technology and Traffic-Related Injury Prevention: Global Health Potential. J Comm Biotech. 2013;19(4):35-41.

Mackey TK, Liang BA. Dangerous Science: Online Promotion of Unproven Stem Cell Therapies and Global Health Risks. J Comm Biotech. 2013;19(4):19-28.

Liang BA. Unaddressed Implications of Technology in Global Health. J Comm Biotech. 2013;19(4):11-12.

Brown M, Liang BA, Hale B, Novotny T. China's Role in Global Health Diplomacy: Designing Expanded U.S. Partnership for Health System Strengthening in Africa. Glob Health Gov. 2013;6(2):31-e18.

Mackey TK, Liang BA, Strathdee S. Digital Social Media, Youth and Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs: The Need for Reform. J Med Internet Res. 2013; 15(7):e143, doi:10.2196/jmir.2464.

Liang BA, Mackey TK, Archer-Hayes A, Shinn L. Illicit Online Marketing of Lorcaserin Before DEA Scheduling. Obesity. 2013;21(5):861-864.

Mackey TK, Liang BA. Global Reach of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Using Social Media for Illicit Online Drug Sales. J Med Internet Res. 2013;15(5):e105, doi:10.2196/jmir.2610.

Liang BA, Mackey TK, Lovett KM. Illegal “No Prescription” Internet Access to Narrow Therapeutic Index Drugs. Clin Ther. 2013;35(5):694-700.

Mackey TM, Liang BA, Novotny T. Evolution of Tobacco Labeling and Packaging: Global Health Governance and International Legal Considerations. Am J Pub Health. 2013;103(4):e39-e43, doi:10. 2105/AJPH.2012.301029.

Mackey TK, Liang BA. Physician Payment Disclosure Under Healthcare Reform: Will the Sun Shine? J Am Board Fam Med. 2013;26: 327-331. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2013.03.120264.

Mackey TK, Liang BA. Rethinking Brain Drain: Health Worker Migration and Health System Strengthening Financing Reform. Glob Health Action. 2013;6:19923.

Mackey T, Liang BA. A Response to Commentaries on “A United Nations Global Health Panel for Global Health Governance.” Soc Sci Med. 2013;76(1):24-27. Subject of a Social Science & Medicine Special Commentary/Debate: Global Governance--Featuring Mackey & Liang, A United Nations Global Health Panel for Global Health Governance; Commentary by Dussault, Sridar, and Hein; and Authors’ Reply.

Mackey T, Liang BA. A United Nations Global Health Panel for Global Health Governance. Soc Sci Med. 2013;76(1):12-15. Subject of a Social Science & Medicine Special Commentary/Debate: Global Governance--Featuring Mackey & Liang, A United Nations Global Health Panel for Global Health Governance, Commentary by Dussault, Sridar, and Hein; and Authors’ Reply.

Mackey T, Liang BA. Oncology and the Internet: Regulatory Failure and Reform. J Onc Prac. 2012;8(6);341-343.

Mackey T, Liang BA. Combating Healthcare Corruption and Fraud with Improved Global Health Governance. BMC Intl Health Hum Rights. 2012;12:23.

Lovett KM, Liang BA, Mackey T. Online Direct-to-Consumer Access to Insulin: Patient Safety Considerations and Reform. J Diab Sci Tech. 2012;6(6):1503-1506. 

Mackey T, Liang BA. Patent and Exclusivity Status of Essential Medicines for Non-Communicable Disease. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e51022.

Mackey TK, Liang BA. Threats from Emerging and Re-emerging Neglected Tropical Diseases. Infec Ecol Epi. 2012;2(1):18667.

Hottinger M, Liang BA. Deficiencies of the FDA in Evaluating Generic Formulations: Addressing Narrow Therapeutic Index Drugs. Am J Law Med. 2012;38:667-689.

Mackey T, Liang BA. Promoting Global Health: Utilizing WHO to Integrate Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property. Drug Disc Today. 2012;17(24-25):1254-1257.

Liang BA, Mackey T, Lovett KM. Suspect Online Sellers and Contraceptive Access. Contraception. 2012;86(5):551-556. 

Liang BA, Mackey T, Lovett KM. Emerging Dangers from Direct Botulinum Access and Use. J Homeland Sec Emerg Manag. 2012;9(1):art.9. 

Mackey TM, Liang BA. Brain Drain: Exploring Resource Allocation to Address Health Worker Migration and Promote Global Health. Health Policy. 2012;107(1):66-73. 

Lovett KM, Mackey TK, Liang BA. Evaluating the evidence: direct-to-consumer screening tests advertised online. J Med Screen. 2012;19:141–153.

Liang BA, Mackey T. Tipping Point: Biosimilars, Emerging Markets, and Public-Private Engagement to Promote Global Health. J Comm Biotech. 2012;18(4):65-74 (2012). 

Mackey T, Liang BA. Globalization, Evolution and Emergence of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising: Are Emerging Markets the Next Pharmaceutical Marketing Frontier? J Comm Biotech. 2012;18(4):58-64. 

Brown M, Mackey T, Liang BA. Global Health Diplomacy and Management Mechanisms of US-China Public Health Collaborations in China: Lessons for Emerging Markets. J Comm Biotech. 2012;18(4):44-50.

Fan V, Liang BA. Lessons on Emerging Markets and Global Health. J Comm Biotech. 2012;18(4):34-35.

Liang BA, Mackey T. Sexual Medicine: Online Risks to Health-The Problem of Counterfeit Drugs. Nature Rev Urol. 2012;9:480-482.

Liang BA, Mackey TK. Stem Cells, Dot-Com. Sci Trans Med. 2012;4(151):151cm9. 

Mackey TK, Liang BA. Separating Online Piracy from Counterfeit Medicines: The Need for Policy Reform and a Call to Action. Health Policy Tech. 2012;1:120-122.

Mackey T, Liang BA. Global Health Policy Coordination to Address Neglected Tropical Diseases. Trop Med Inter Health 2012;17(9):1053-1056.

Liang BA, Lovett KM. Online Elder Abuse: Addressing Senior Safety Risks. Experience. 2012;22(2)17-22. 

Lovett KM, Liang BA. Accountable Care Organizations: Updates and Issues. Path Case Rev. 2012;17(4):157-159.

Mackey TK, Liang BA. Transparency in Physician-Industry Relationships: State and Federal Efforts. Path Case Rev. 2012;17(4):144-147.

Lovett KM, Liang BA. Quality Care Opportunities: Refining Physician Performance Measurement in the Ambulatory Care Setting. Am J Manag Care. 2012;18(6):e212-e216.

Lovett KM, Liang BA. Direct-to-Consumer Disease Screening with Finger-Stick Testing: Online Patient Safety Risks. Clin Chem. 2012;58(7):1091-3.

Mackey TK, Liang BA. Promoting Access to Biosimilars: A Public-Private Partnership Model for Biosimlar Development in Underserved Populations. GaBI J. 2012;1(2):84-88.

Mackey T, Liang BA. Integrating Biodiversity Management and Indigenous Biopiracy Protection to Promote Environmental Justice and Global Health. Am J Pub Health. 2012;102(6):1091-1095.

Mackey TM, Liang BA, Kubic T. Dangerous Doses: Fighting Fraud in the Global Medicine Supply Chain. Foreign Affairs. 2012; May 14.

Lovett KM, Liang BA, Mackey T. Risks of Online Direct-to-Consumer Tumor Markers for Cancer Screening. J Clin. Onc. 2012;30(13):1411-1414. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2011.37.8984.

Liang BA, Mackey T. Biosimilars and Patient Safety Risk: Promoting Policy Protections in the Health Delivery System. Rev Health Care. 2012;3(2):71-74.

Liang BA, Mackey T. Addressing Illicit Online Pharmacies: Global Patient Safety and Regulatory Challenges. In: Counterfeit Medicines: Policy, Economics, and Countermeasures 75-89 (Albert Wertheimer & Perry Wang, eds. 2012).

Liang, BA, Mackey T. Creating Illicit Laparoscopic Appendectomy Operating Rooms Using Online Sourcing. Am Surg. 2012;78(4):502-503.

Liang BA, Mackey T. Preparing for Health Diplomacy Negotiations—Global Governance and the Case of Taiwan, WHO, and SARS. In: Ellen Rosskam & Ilona Kickbusch, eds., Negotiating and Navigating Global Health: Case Studies in Global Health Diplomacy. London: Imperial College World Scientific Press, 2012, 173-202.

Mackey T, Liang BA, Lovett KM. Waking Up to the Risks of Online Direct-to-Consumer Advertising of Sleep Apnea Screening Tests. J Clin Sleep Med. 2012;8(1):5-6.

Liang BA, Mackey T. Online Availability and Safety of Drugs in Shortage: A Descriptive Study of Internet Vendor Characteristics. J Med Internet Res. 2012;14(1):e27 doi:10.2196/jmir.1999. 

Liang BA, Lovett KM, Mackey, TK. eElder Abuse. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60:398–400. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03798.x

Mackey T, Liang BA. Lessons from SARS and 2009 H1N1 influenza: Employing a WHO-WTO Forum to Promote Optimal Economic-Public Health Pandemic Response. J Pub Health Policy. 2012;33(1):119-131 doi:10.1057/jphp.2011.51.

Liang BA, Mackey T. Vaccine Shortages and Suspect Online Pharmacy Sellers. Vaccine. 2012;30(2):103-105 doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.11.016. 

Liang BA, Mackey T, Lovett, KM. eHealth Ethics: The Online Medical Marketplace and Emerging Ethical Issues. Ethics Biol Eng Med. 2011;2(3):253-265. 

Lovett KM, Liang BA. Risks of Online Advertisement of Direct-to-Consumer Thermography for Breast Cancer Screening. Nature Reviews Cancer. 2011; 11(12): 827-828 doi:10.1038/nrc3170.

Liang BA, Mackey T. Emerging Patient Safety Issues Under Healthcare Reform: Follow On Biologics and Immunogenicity. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2011;7:483-489. 

Mackey T, Liang BA. Off Label Promotion Reform: A Legislative Proposal Addressing Vulnerable Patient Drug Access and Limiting Inappropriate Pharmaceutical Marketing. Univ Mich J Law Reform. 2011; 45(1):1-54.

Liang BA, Mackey T. Quality and Safety in Health Care: What Does What the Future Hold? Arch Path Lab Med. 2011;135:1425-1431.

Mackey T, Liang BA. The Global Counterfeit Drug Trade: Patient Safety and Public Health Risks. J Pharm Sci. 2011;100(11):4571-4579.

Liang BA, Mackey T. Prevalence and Global Health Implications of Social Media in Direct-to-Consumer Drug Advertising. J Med Internet Res. 2011;13(3):e64 doi:10.2196/jmir.1775.

Mackey TK, Liang BA. Promoting Online Drug Safety: Using Public–Private Partnerships to Deter Illicit Online Drug Sales. J Comm Biotech. 2011;17(3):266-271.

Liang BA. Global Governance: Promoting Biodiversity and Protecting Indigenous Communities Against Biopiracy. J Comm Biotech. 2011;17(3):248-253. 

Liang BA. Public-Private Partnerships in Global Health. J Comm Biotech. 2011;17(3):230-232. 

Liang BA, Boyd M. PTSD in Returning Wounded Warriors: Ensuring Medically Appropriate Evaluation and Legal Representation Through Legislative Reform. Stanford Law Pol’y Rev. 2011;22(1):177-215.

Lovett K, Liang BA. DTC cardiac screening and suspect risk evaluation. JAMA. 2011; 305(24): 2567-2568.

Minelli E, Liang BA. Transplant Candidates and Substance Use: Adopting Rational Health Policy for Resource Allocation. Univ Mich J Law Ref. 2011;44(3):667-698.

Liang BA, Mackey T. Reforming Direct-to-Consumer Advertising. Nature Biotech. 2011; 29(5):397-400.

Standley C, Liang BA. Addressing Inappropriate Care Provision at the End of Life: A Policy Proposal for Hospitals. J Med Law. 2011;15(1):137-176.

Liang, BA, Mackey T. Direct to Consumer Advertising with Interactive Internet Media: Global Regulation and Public Health Issues. JAMA. 2011; 305(8):824-825.

Liang BA et al. In Situ Simulation: Using Aviation Principles to Identify Relevant Teamwork and Systems Issues to Promote Patient Safety. Intl J Saf High Conseq Indus. 2011;1(1):53-64.

Liang BA. Supporting Pharmaceutical Diversion and Counterfeiting Prosecutions: A Role for Medical Professionals. J Biolaw Bus. 2010;13(1&2):55-57.

Liang BA. Pharmaceutical Crime: Investigating and Prosecuting Drug Diversion and Counterfeiting, J. Biolaw Bus. 2010;13(1&2):36-37.

Liang BA, Mackey T. Addressing Institutional Conflict of Interest to Promote Patient Safety. Pat Safety Qual Healthcare. 2010;7(6):36-39.

Liang BA. School-Sponsored Health Insurance: Planning for a New Reality. Planning Higher Ed. 2010;39(2):60-63.

Liang BA, Mackey T. Confronting Conflict: Addressing Institutional Conflicts of Interest in Academic Medical Centers. Am J Law Med. 2010;36(1):136-187.

Liang BA. Crisis on Campus: Student Access to Health Care. Univ Mich J Law Ref. 2010; 44(3):617-662.

Liang BA, Mackey T. Reforming Off-Label Promotion to Enhance Orphan Disease Treatment. Science. 2010; 327(5963):273-274. (subject of editorial correspondence, Liang BA, Mackey T. Consent Contraindicated? In Reply. Science. 2010;328(5974):45).

Liang BA, Seki F. Protecting the Elderly: Policy Lessons from an Analysis of the United States and Japan. Yokohama Law Rev. 2009;18(2):1-37.

Liang BA, Mackey T. Searching for Safety: Addressing Search Engine, Web site, and Provider Accountability for Illicit Online Drug Sales. Am J Law Med. 2009;35(1):125-184. (subject of editorial correspondence, Liang BA, Mackey T. Searching for Safety: A Reply to Cooperman and Levitt. Am J Law Med. 2009;35(4):687-694).

Liang BA. International Drug Production and Supply: Challenges for Biopreparedness. J Biolaw Bus. 2009;12(3):31-34.

Balcius J, Liang BA. Public Health Law & Military Medical Assets: Legal Issues in Federalizing National Guard Personnel. Ann Health Law. 2009;18:35-73.

Liang BA. Pigs, Drugs, and Terrorists. Patient Saf Qual Healthcare. 2008;5(6):10-12.

Liang BA, Lew R, Zivin J. A Review of Tissue Plasminogen Activator, Ischemic Stroke, and Potential Legal Issues. Arch Neurol. 2008;65(11):1429-1433 (subject of editorial correspondence, Liang BA, Lew R, Zivin J. Review of Tissue Plasminogen Activator, Ischemic Stroke, and Legal Issues: In Reply. Arch Neurol. 2009;66(4):541).

Riley W, Liang B, Rutherford W, Hamman W. Structure and Features of a Care Enhancement Model Implementing the Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act. In: Kerm Henriksen, James B. Battles, Margaret A. Keyes, Mary L. Grady, eds., Advances in Patient Safety: New Directions and Alternative Approaches, Vol. I: Assessment. Washington, D.C.: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2008; 59-70.

Liang BA. A Dose of Reality: Promoting Access to Pharmaceuticals. Wake Forest Intell Prop Law J. 2008; 8(3):301-386.

Liang BA, Zivin J. Empirical Characteristics of Stroke and Tissue Plasminogen Activator Litigation. Ann Emerg Med. 2008;52:160-164 (an Early Release and Featured Article; subject of editorial correspondence, Liang BA, Zivin J. Litigation Regarding tPA and Stroke: In Reply. Ann Emerg Med. 2009;53(3):404-405).

Riley W, Liang BA, Hamman W, Rutherford W. The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005: Developing an Error Reporting System to Improve Patient Safety. J Patient Saf. 2008;4(1):13-17.

Hanrahan CP, Liang BA. Promoting Public Health and Provider Response to Emergencies and Disasters. Univ Penn J Law Social Change. 2008;11:29-73.

Hogan KM, Liang BA. Inert Pesticide Ingredient Regulation: Legal and Policy Considerations. J Biolaw Bus. 2007;10(3):14-19.

Liang BA. Regulating Follow-on Biologics. Harv J Legis. 2007;44:363-471.

Liang BA. Addressing Limited English Proficiency: A Call for Action to Promote Patient Safety. J Patient Saf. 2007;3(1):3-5 (corrected version published at J Patient Saf. 2007;3(2):57-59).

Hollis A, Liang BA. An Assessment of the Effect of Authorized Generics on Consumer Prices. J Biolaw Bus. 2007;10(1):10-18.

Lin L, Liang BA. Addressing the Nursing Work Environment to Promote Patient Safety. Nurs Forum. 2007;42(1):20-30.

Liang BA, Riley W, Hamman W, Rutherford W. The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005: Provisions and Potential. Am J Med Qual. 2007;22(1):8-12.

Liang BA. Parallel Trade in Pharmaceuticals: Injecting the Counterfeit Element into the Public’s Health. NC J Intl Law Comm Reg. 2006;31(4):847-899.

Liang BA. Elder Abuse Detection in Nursing Facilities: Using Paid Clinical Competence to Address the Nation’s Shame. J Health Law. 2006;39(4):527-550.

Liang BA. Structurally Sophisticated or Lamentably Limited? Mechanisms to Ensure Safety of the Medicine Supply. Alb Law J Sci Tech. 2006;16(3):483-524.

Liang BA. Crime, Terrorism, and Counterfeit Drugs: Addressing the International Regime. J Biolaw Bus. 2006;9(4):36-40.

Liang BA, Boudreaux AM. Lethal Injection: Policy Considerations for Medicine. J Clin Anes. 2006;18(6):466-470.

Liang BA. Fade to Black: Importation and Counterfeit Drugs. Am J Law Med. 2006;32:279-323.

Schuyler D, Liang BA. Reconceptualizing Elder Abuse: Treating the Disease of Senior Community Exclusion. Ann Health Law. 2006;15(2):275-305.

Luu AD, Liang BA. Clinical Case Management: A Strategy to Coordinate Detection, Reporting, and Prosecution of Elder Abuse. Cornell J Law Pub Pol’y. 2005;15(1):165-196.

Liang BA. Collaborating on Patient Safety: Legal Concerns and Policy Requirements. Widener Law Rev. 2005;12:83-105.

Luu AD, Liang BA. Case Management: Lessons from Integrated Delivery to Promote Quality Care to the Elderly. J Med Law. 2005;9(2):257-277.

Lin L, Liang BA. Reforming Residency: Modernizing Resident Education and Training to Promote Quality and Safety In Health Care. J Health Law. 2005;38(2):203-246.

Liang BA, Weinger MB, Suydam S. Learning from Others: Legal Aspects of Sharing Patient Safety Data Using Provider Consortiums. J Patient Saf. 2005;1(2):83-89.

Smith L, Liang BA. Childhood Obesity: A Public Health Problem Requiring a Policy Solution. J Med Law. 2005;9(1):37-54.

Liang BA. A Policy of System Safety: Shifting the Medical and Legal Paradigms to Effectively Address Error in Medicine. Harv Health Policy Rev. 2004;5(1):6-13.